Cashmere Silk Scarf geometry by VIDA VIDA HVJ2dw

Cashmere Silk Scarf - geometry by VIDA VIDA HVJ2dw
Cashmere Silk Scarf - geometry by VIDA VIDA

A simple model animal, C . elegans , basically exhibits three types of avoidance behaviors, namely, the short reversal, long reversal, and omega turn, upon direct contact of the head region with a noxious stimulus [ 10 ]. In all cases, backward behaviors occur upon the initiation of all types of avoidance behavior ( Fig 1A ). Short and long reversals are classified according to the backward length. Both reversals briefly interrupt forward movement but the animal still maintains its original heading. On the other hand, the omega turn is classified according to the large reorientation angle (>135°) accompanied by any backward length, which the animal reorients towards the original position [ 10 ]. C . elegans must weigh the physical risks due to the nociceptive stimulus and it should choose the deliberate way of avoidance behaviors.

Fig 1. is required for proper optimization of probability of omega turn with proportional stimulus strength.

(A) A scheme of the avoidance behaviors [ 11 ]. After contacting a noxious stimulus (x), an animal exhibits backward behavior. Short and long reversal are subdivided by the backward length with 1~2 head swings or three head swings or greater without omega turn, respectively. An omega turn is specifically defined by reorientation angles (θ ≧135) following the backward behaviors with/without either short reversal or long reversal. (B) lite-1 mutants expressing ChR2(H134R) in ASH sensory neurons (ASH::ChR2(H134R); lite-1 ) exhibit short reversal (left panel, dashed line) with 25% light irradiation (x) and omega turns (right panel, dashed line) with 100% light irradiation (x). (C) ASH :: ChR2(H134R); lite-1 animals with ATR can optimize their dominant behaviors from reversals to omega turns with proportional to light intensity. n = 6,7,9,8,7,11. (D) Wild type animals adjust probability of omega turns depending on the sorbitol drop concentration. n = 17,30,20,20,20. (E) ASH::ChR2(H134R); lin-32 lite-1 animals showed reduced omega turns even with ATR and 100% light intensity. n = 4,7,7,4,7,7. (F) lin-32 animals show reduced omega turns independent on the sorbitol drop concentration. n = 20,7,33,20,12. n = plate (cohort) of approximately 10–20 animals. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM.

The basic avoidance circuit of C . elegans has been clarified [ 11 ]. ASH nociceptive neurons mainly receive noxious stimuli, for example, high osmolarity, harsh touch, heavy metals, and dense odorants, detergents etc. [ 4 ], and regulate avoidance behaviors through two downstream circuits, namely, the primary circuit and the secondary circuit [ 11 ]. In the primary circuit, ASH forms chemical synapses with AVA interneurons [ 12 ]. AVA contributes to the frequency and length of backward movement through an excitatory connection to DA and VA motor neurons; in this way, AVA may determine the short and long reversals [ 13 , striped tie Nude amp; Neutrals Lardini CY2HHZE1d
, 15 , 16 ]. In development, transcription factor fax-1 (defective FA sciculation of a X ons 1) , which is an ortholog to the vertebrate PNR ( P hotoreceptor-specific N uclear R eceptor ), regulates the differentiation of AVA [ 17 ].

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